ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Physics 08 June 2023

Design of a fiber cavity ion trap for a high-efficiency and high-rate quantum network node

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2023-0005
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  • Author Bio:

    Xing-Yu Bao received his master degree in Physics from the University of Science and Technology of China in 2023. His research interests mainly focus on ion trap and quantum computing

    Jin-Ming Cui works as an Associate Researcher in the University of Science and Technology of China. He got his B.S. degree and Ph.D. degree from USTC in 2008 and 2013, respectively. During his Ph.D.’s study, he focused on experiment works with optical micro-cavities and NV centers. Now his major research focuses on quantum information based on trapped ion system, including quantum simulation, quantum computation, quantum network, and fiber Fabry-Perot microcavity

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: jmcui@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 13 January 2023
  • Accepted Date: 23 April 2023
  • Available Online: 08 June 2023
  • The main purpose of this paper is to design a novel coupled system of an ion trap and a fiber cavity. This integrated solution is achieved by fabricating a fiber cavity with a metal mask on the side and end faces of the fiber. The fiber cavity with the metal mask can transmit light and electric charges, and the metal mask on the fiber end-face can shield electric charges on the dielectric high-reflection film. This system is designed to trap a single $ ^{138}\text{Ba}^{+} $ ion and realize coupling of the fiber cavity to the fluorescence at a 493 nm wavelength of $ ^{138}\text{Ba}^{+} $. To efficiently collect fluorescent photons, we perform a theoretical analysis of the overall system to achieve optimal coupling of each individual part. The cavity length is designed to be $ 250 $ μm, and the optimized coupling parameters are $(g,\kappa,\gamma)/2{\text{π}}=(55,\;105,\;20)$ MHz. We also improve the stability and reliability of the system by analyzing the vibration, performance of the ion trap, and thermal stability. The core of the system is composed of materials with similar thermal expansion coefficients to improve thermal stability. The system uses spring connections to isolate vibrations inside and outside the vacuum chamber. We theoretically solve the difficulties of manufacturing the coupled system and have completed the experimental verification of some key technologies. The whole system is expected to be extended into a complex quantum network system to realize quantum computation and communication.
    Scheme and parameters of the designed fiber cavity ion trap.
    The main purpose of this paper is to design a novel coupled system of an ion trap and a fiber cavity. This integrated solution is achieved by fabricating a fiber cavity with a metal mask on the side and end faces of the fiber. The fiber cavity with the metal mask can transmit light and electric charges, and the metal mask on the fiber end-face can shield electric charges on the dielectric high-reflection film. This system is designed to trap a single $ ^{138}\text{Ba}^{+} $ ion and realize coupling of the fiber cavity to the fluorescence at a 493 nm wavelength of $ ^{138}\text{Ba}^{+} $. To efficiently collect fluorescent photons, we perform a theoretical analysis of the overall system to achieve optimal coupling of each individual part. The cavity length is designed to be $ 250 $ μm, and the optimized coupling parameters are $(g,\kappa,\gamma)/2{\text{π}}=(55,\;105,\;20)$ MHz. We also improve the stability and reliability of the system by analyzing the vibration, performance of the ion trap, and thermal stability. The core of the system is composed of materials with similar thermal expansion coefficients to improve thermal stability. The system uses spring connections to isolate vibrations inside and outside the vacuum chamber. We theoretically solve the difficulties of manufacturing the coupled system and have completed the experimental verification of some key technologies. The whole system is expected to be extended into a complex quantum network system to realize quantum computation and communication.
    • This work designs a high-efficiency and high-photon-rate quantum node based on a cold trapped ion.
    • The optimized small-mode-volume fiber cavity serves as a resonant cavity to efficiently collect ion fluorescence photons.
    • The end face of the fiber is coated with a metal mask, which can effectively reduce the charging effect of the fiber, contributing to stable ion trapping in the cavity mode.

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  • [1]
    Duan L M, Monroe C. Colloquium: Quantum networks with trapped ions. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2010, 82: 1209–1224. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.82.1209
    [2]
    Ritter S, Nölleke C, Hahn C, et al. An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities. Nature, 2012, 484: 195–200. doi: 10.1038/nature11023
    [3]
    Reiserer A, Kalb N, Rempe G, et al. A quantum gate between a flying optical photon and a single trapped atom. Nature, 2014, 508: 237–240. doi: 10.1038/nature13177
    [4]
    Uphoff M, Brekenfeld M, Rempe G, et al. An integrated quantum repeater at telecom wavelength with single atoms in optical fiber cavities. Applied Physics B, 2016, 122: 46. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-015-6299-2
    [5]
    Paul W, Raether M. Das elektrische massenfilter. Zeitschrift Für Physik, 1955, 140: 262–273. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01328923
    [6]
    Paul W. Electromagnetic traps for charged and neutral particles. Reviews of Modern Physics, 1990, 62: 531–540. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.62.531
    [7]
    Wang C X, He R, Li R R, et al. Advances in the study of ion trap structures in quantum computation and simulation. Acta Physica Sinica, 2022, 71: 133701. doi: 10.7498/aps.71.20220224
    [8]
    Prestage J D, Dick G J, Maleki L. New ion trap for frequency standard applications. Journal of Applied Physics, 1989, 66: 1013–1017. doi: 10.1063/1.343486
    [9]
    Schmidt-Kaler F, Häffner H, Gulde S, et al. How to realize a universal quantum gate with trapped ions. Applied Physics B, 2003, 77: 789–796. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-003-1346-9
    [10]
    He R, Cui J M, Li R R, et al. An ion trap apparatus with high optical access in multiple directions. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2021, 92: 073201. doi: 10.1063/5.0043985
    [11]
    Chiaverini J, Blakestad R B, Britton J, et al. Surface-electrode architecture for ion-trap quantum information processing. Quantum Information and Computation, 2005, 5: 419–439. doi: 10.26421/QIC5.6-1
    [12]
    David Romaszko Z, Hong S, Siegele M, et al. Engineering of microfabricated ion traps and integration of advanced on-chip features. Nature Reviews Physics, 2020, 2: 285–299. doi: 10.1038/s42254-020-0182-8
    [13]
    Leibfried D, Blatt R, Monroe C, et al. Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2003, 75: 281–324. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.75.281
    [14]
    Mehta K K, Zhang C, Malinowski M, et al. Integrated optical multi-ion quantum logic. Nature, 2020, 586: 533–537. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2823-6
    [15]
    Chou C K, Auchter C, Lilieholm J, et al. Note: Single ion imaging and fluorescence collection with a parabolic mirror trap. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2017, 88: 086101. doi: 10.1063/1.4996506
    [16]
    Wang Z, Wang B R, Ma Q L, et al. Design of a novel monolithic parabolic-mirror ion-trap to precisely align the RF null point with the optical focus. arXiv: 2004.08845, 2020.
    [17]
    Law C K, Kimble H J. Deterministic generation of a bit-stream of single-photon pulses. Journal of Modern Optics, 1997, 44: 2067–2074. doi: 10.1080/09500349708231869
    [18]
    Hunger D, Steinmetz T, Colombe Y, et al. A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse. New Journal of Physics, 2010, 12: 065038. doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/12/6/065038
    [19]
    Schupp J, Krcmarsky V, Krutyanskiy V, et al. Interface between trapped-ion qubits and traveling photons with close-to-optimal efficiency. PRX Quantum, 2021, 2: 020331. doi: 10.1103/PRXQuantum.2.020331
    [20]
    Krutyanskiy V, Galli M, Krcmarsky V, et al. Entanglement of trapped-ion qubits separated by 230 meters. Physical Review Letters, 2023, 130: 050803. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.050803
    [21]
    Wilk T, Webster S C, Kuhn A, et al. Single-atom single-photon quantum interface. Science, 2007, 317: 488–490. doi: 10.1126/science.1143835
    [22]
    Daiss S, Langenfeld S, Welte S, et al. A quantum-logic gate between distant quantum-network modules. Science, 2021, 371: 614–617. doi: 10.1126/science.abe3150
    [23]
    Thomas P, Ruscio L, Morin O, et al. Efficient generation of entangled multiphoton graph states from a single atom. Nature, 2022, 608: 677–681. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04987-5
    [24]
    Brandstätter B, McClung A, Schüppert K, et al. Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling. The Review of Scientific Instruments, 2013, 84: 123104. doi: 10.1063/1.4838696
    [25]
    Ballance T G, Meyer H M, Kobel P, et al. Cavity-induced backaction in Purcell-enhanced photon emission of a single ion in an ultraviolet fiber cavity. Physical Review A, 2017, 95: 033812. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033812
    [26]
    Lee M, Lee M, Hong S, et al. Microelectromechanical-system-based design of a high-finesse fiber cavity integrated with an ion trap. Physical Review Applied, 2019, 12: 044052. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.12.044052
    [27]
    Takahashi H, Kassa E, Christoforou C, et al. Strong coupling of a single ion to an optical cavity. Physical Review Letters, 2020, 124: 013602. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.013602
    [28]
    Teller M, Messerer V, Schüppert K, et al. Integrating a fiber cavity into a wheel trap for strong ion-cavity coupling. AVS Quantum Science, 2023, 5: 012001. doi: 10.1116/5.0121534
    [29]
    Kumph M, Henkel C, Rabl P, et al. Electric-field noise above a thin dielectric layer on metal electrodes. New Journal of Physics, 2016, 18: 023020. doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/2/023020
    [30]
    Teller M, Fioretto D A, Holz P C, et al. Heating of a trapped ion induced by dielectric materials. Physical Review Letters, 2021, 126: 230505. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.230505
    [31]
    Sterk J D, Luo L, Manning T A, et al. Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system. Physical Review A, 2012, 85: 062308. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.062308
  • JUSTC-2023-0005-Supporting_information.pdf
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Catalog

    Figure  1.  (a) Schematic diagram of the fiber cavity ion trap system. The fiber cavity ion trap is placed in the middle of the vacuum chamber. A single $ ^{138}\text{Ba}^{+} $ ion is trapped in the center. The red and blue lines are the modulation lasers. (b) The basic atomic energy level for photon generation.

    Figure  2.  Diagram of the fiber cavity ion trap system in vacuum. The fiber electrodes are mounted on a fiber mounting base. This system uses a ceramic circuit board to energize the ion trap. The stainless steel base of the device is composed of two spring-connected parts, and the lower part of the stainless steel base is directly connected to the vacuum chamber through grippers.

    Figure  3.  Flow chart for fabricating fiber electrodes. The cut bare fiber undergoes a complete process to form a central light-permeable electrode structure with a gold layer around the cavity surface to shield the charges from the high-reflection film.

    Figure  4.  Arrangement of the fiber electrodes in the system. The four side fiber electrodes are grounded by default, and the middle fiber electrodes are applied with the RF electric field.

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of the interaction between the fiber cavity and the ion. In the presence of an external electric field $E_{{\rm{s}}}\cos(\omega_{{L}}t)$, the single ion interacts with the cavity. In cavity quantum electrodynamics, this interaction can be described using $ (g,\kappa,\gamma) $. There is only a fundamental mode in the cavity and the distribution is affected by the structure of the cavity. Here, $ w_{{\rm{s}},i} \) (\({\rm{s}}={\rm{f}},{\rm{m}}\) and \(i=1,2)$ is the radius of the mode field at each location, $ w_{0} $ is the radius of the waist, $R_{i} \) (\(i=1,2)$ is the radius of curvature (ROC), $ n_{i} \) (\(i=1,2)$ is the refractive index, and $ L $ is the cavity length. At the fiber end face, only the mode field within diameter $ D_{i} \) (\(i=1,2)$ can be reflected by the fiber.

    Figure  6.  Variation curves of each coupling with the radius of curvature (ROC) of the left cavity surface $ R_{1} $ when reflectivity $ {\cal{R}}_{1}=99.8\% $, $ {\cal{R}}_{2}=99.98\% $, and the type of fiber is LMA-10 photonic crystal fiber. $ P $ is the overall efficiency in the figure.

    Figure  7.  Simulated potential energy. A drive voltage of $ 100 $ V is applied to the RF fiber electrodes. The origin of these figures is the center of the fiber cavity.The curves in (a)–(c) show the potential energy along the $ x $, $ y $, and $ z $ directions through the origin, and each red dashed line represents the result of the fit of the quadratic function. The images in (d)–(f) show the potential energy in terms of different cross-section.

    Figure  8.  Schematic diagram of the connection of the stainless steel base. The figure shows the spring arrangement as seen from the side. The stainless steel base uses a total of ten springs, four of which are used to achieve the connection in the vertical direction, and the remaining six springs are used to achieve the connection in the side.

    Figure  9.  Simulated resonant modes of the upper part of the system. The solid blue lines in the figure are the original position of the upper part. The darker the color, the greater the displacement of the upper part.

    [1]
    Duan L M, Monroe C. Colloquium: Quantum networks with trapped ions. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2010, 82: 1209–1224. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.82.1209
    [2]
    Ritter S, Nölleke C, Hahn C, et al. An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities. Nature, 2012, 484: 195–200. doi: 10.1038/nature11023
    [3]
    Reiserer A, Kalb N, Rempe G, et al. A quantum gate between a flying optical photon and a single trapped atom. Nature, 2014, 508: 237–240. doi: 10.1038/nature13177
    [4]
    Uphoff M, Brekenfeld M, Rempe G, et al. An integrated quantum repeater at telecom wavelength with single atoms in optical fiber cavities. Applied Physics B, 2016, 122: 46. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-015-6299-2
    [5]
    Paul W, Raether M. Das elektrische massenfilter. Zeitschrift Für Physik, 1955, 140: 262–273. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01328923
    [6]
    Paul W. Electromagnetic traps for charged and neutral particles. Reviews of Modern Physics, 1990, 62: 531–540. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.62.531
    [7]
    Wang C X, He R, Li R R, et al. Advances in the study of ion trap structures in quantum computation and simulation. Acta Physica Sinica, 2022, 71: 133701. doi: 10.7498/aps.71.20220224
    [8]
    Prestage J D, Dick G J, Maleki L. New ion trap for frequency standard applications. Journal of Applied Physics, 1989, 66: 1013–1017. doi: 10.1063/1.343486
    [9]
    Schmidt-Kaler F, Häffner H, Gulde S, et al. How to realize a universal quantum gate with trapped ions. Applied Physics B, 2003, 77: 789–796. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-003-1346-9
    [10]
    He R, Cui J M, Li R R, et al. An ion trap apparatus with high optical access in multiple directions. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2021, 92: 073201. doi: 10.1063/5.0043985
    [11]
    Chiaverini J, Blakestad R B, Britton J, et al. Surface-electrode architecture for ion-trap quantum information processing. Quantum Information and Computation, 2005, 5: 419–439. doi: 10.26421/QIC5.6-1
    [12]
    David Romaszko Z, Hong S, Siegele M, et al. Engineering of microfabricated ion traps and integration of advanced on-chip features. Nature Reviews Physics, 2020, 2: 285–299. doi: 10.1038/s42254-020-0182-8
    [13]
    Leibfried D, Blatt R, Monroe C, et al. Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2003, 75: 281–324. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.75.281
    [14]
    Mehta K K, Zhang C, Malinowski M, et al. Integrated optical multi-ion quantum logic. Nature, 2020, 586: 533–537. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2823-6
    [15]
    Chou C K, Auchter C, Lilieholm J, et al. Note: Single ion imaging and fluorescence collection with a parabolic mirror trap. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2017, 88: 086101. doi: 10.1063/1.4996506
    [16]
    Wang Z, Wang B R, Ma Q L, et al. Design of a novel monolithic parabolic-mirror ion-trap to precisely align the RF null point with the optical focus. arXiv: 2004.08845, 2020.
    [17]
    Law C K, Kimble H J. Deterministic generation of a bit-stream of single-photon pulses. Journal of Modern Optics, 1997, 44: 2067–2074. doi: 10.1080/09500349708231869
    [18]
    Hunger D, Steinmetz T, Colombe Y, et al. A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse. New Journal of Physics, 2010, 12: 065038. doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/12/6/065038
    [19]
    Schupp J, Krcmarsky V, Krutyanskiy V, et al. Interface between trapped-ion qubits and traveling photons with close-to-optimal efficiency. PRX Quantum, 2021, 2: 020331. doi: 10.1103/PRXQuantum.2.020331
    [20]
    Krutyanskiy V, Galli M, Krcmarsky V, et al. Entanglement of trapped-ion qubits separated by 230 meters. Physical Review Letters, 2023, 130: 050803. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.050803
    [21]
    Wilk T, Webster S C, Kuhn A, et al. Single-atom single-photon quantum interface. Science, 2007, 317: 488–490. doi: 10.1126/science.1143835
    [22]
    Daiss S, Langenfeld S, Welte S, et al. A quantum-logic gate between distant quantum-network modules. Science, 2021, 371: 614–617. doi: 10.1126/science.abe3150
    [23]
    Thomas P, Ruscio L, Morin O, et al. Efficient generation of entangled multiphoton graph states from a single atom. Nature, 2022, 608: 677–681. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04987-5
    [24]
    Brandstätter B, McClung A, Schüppert K, et al. Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling. The Review of Scientific Instruments, 2013, 84: 123104. doi: 10.1063/1.4838696
    [25]
    Ballance T G, Meyer H M, Kobel P, et al. Cavity-induced backaction in Purcell-enhanced photon emission of a single ion in an ultraviolet fiber cavity. Physical Review A, 2017, 95: 033812. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033812
    [26]
    Lee M, Lee M, Hong S, et al. Microelectromechanical-system-based design of a high-finesse fiber cavity integrated with an ion trap. Physical Review Applied, 2019, 12: 044052. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.12.044052
    [27]
    Takahashi H, Kassa E, Christoforou C, et al. Strong coupling of a single ion to an optical cavity. Physical Review Letters, 2020, 124: 013602. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.013602
    [28]
    Teller M, Messerer V, Schüppert K, et al. Integrating a fiber cavity into a wheel trap for strong ion-cavity coupling. AVS Quantum Science, 2023, 5: 012001. doi: 10.1116/5.0121534
    [29]
    Kumph M, Henkel C, Rabl P, et al. Electric-field noise above a thin dielectric layer on metal electrodes. New Journal of Physics, 2016, 18: 023020. doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/2/023020
    [30]
    Teller M, Fioretto D A, Holz P C, et al. Heating of a trapped ion induced by dielectric materials. Physical Review Letters, 2021, 126: 230505. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.230505
    [31]
    Sterk J D, Luo L, Manning T A, et al. Photon collection from a trapped ion-cavity system. Physical Review A, 2012, 85: 062308. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.062308

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