ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Engineering & Materials 02 May 2023

Advanced functional safeguarding composites with enhanced anti-impact and excellent thermal properties

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2022-0089
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  • Author Bio:

    Wenhui Wang received her Bachelor degree from China University of Petroleum (East China). She is currently a Ph.D. candidate under the supervision of Prof. Xinglong Gong in the Intelligent Materials and Vibration Control Laboratory at the University of Science and Technology of China. Her research focuses on shear thickening materials and smart anti-impact devices

    Sheng Wang received his Ph.D. degree from University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in 2017. Then, he was a postdoctoral fellow in the CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials in Hefei. Now he is an Associate Professor at USTC. His research interests include smart materials and devices with magnetic, electric, and force-sensing properties. He is also interested in developing multifunctional triboelectric nanogenerator systems

    Xinglong Gong received his Ph.D. degree in Mechanics from both the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and Saitama University in 1996. Then, he worked at the Nihon Dempa Kogyo Co., Ltd., Japan. In 2003, he joined the Department of Modern Mechanics, USTC, as a Full Professor. He is currently the Chief Editor of Chinese Journal of Experimental Mechanics, Director of CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials. His research interests comprise soft matter materials as well as their applications. He was supported by the 100-Talent Programme of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2003 and supported by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China in 2011

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: wsh160@ustc.edu.cn; E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 05 June 2022
  • Accepted Date: 16 August 2022
  • Available Online: 02 May 2023
  • Personal safety protection has played an important role in daily life. Developing advanced functional safeguarding composites with enhanced anti-impact and excellent thermal properties will be a significant development for body armor. Herein, Kevlar fiber reinforced polymers (KFRP) were fabricated by introducing short Kevlar fibers (KFs) into a shear stiffening elastomer (SSE). The storage modulus of KFRP with 15 wt% KFs (KFRP-15%) increased from 222.8 kPa to 830.8 kPa when the shear frequency varied from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. KFRP-15% achieved a higher tensile strength (2.65 MPa) and fracture toughness (11.95 kJ/m2) than SSE in the vertical type, showing superior tear resistance. Additionally, KFRP-15% exhibited promising anti-impact properties, which could dissipate the drop hammer impact force from 1.74 kN to 0.56 kN and remained intact after 10 consecutive impacts. Moreover, KFRP-15% also presented excellent stab-resistant performance. In addition, KFRP-15% also showed improved heat transfer properties, flame retardancy, and smoke suppression capabilities. Finally, functional bracers based on KFRP-15% for protection, thermal-dissipation, and flame-retardant were successfully prepared.
    Kevlar fiber reinforced polymers (KFRP) with tear-resistant and flame retardant properties were applied to safeguard bracers.
    Personal safety protection has played an important role in daily life. Developing advanced functional safeguarding composites with enhanced anti-impact and excellent thermal properties will be a significant development for body armor. Herein, Kevlar fiber reinforced polymers (KFRP) were fabricated by introducing short Kevlar fibers (KFs) into a shear stiffening elastomer (SSE). The storage modulus of KFRP with 15 wt% KFs (KFRP-15%) increased from 222.8 kPa to 830.8 kPa when the shear frequency varied from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. KFRP-15% achieved a higher tensile strength (2.65 MPa) and fracture toughness (11.95 kJ/m2) than SSE in the vertical type, showing superior tear resistance. Additionally, KFRP-15% exhibited promising anti-impact properties, which could dissipate the drop hammer impact force from 1.74 kN to 0.56 kN and remained intact after 10 consecutive impacts. Moreover, KFRP-15% also presented excellent stab-resistant performance. In addition, KFRP-15% also showed improved heat transfer properties, flame retardancy, and smoke suppression capabilities. Finally, functional bracers based on KFRP-15% for protection, thermal-dissipation, and flame-retardant were successfully prepared.
    • Kevlar fiber reinforced polymers (KFRP) showed shear stiffening behavior and enhanced strength and toughness.
    • KFRP exhibited excellent anti-impact and stab-resistant performance.
    • KFRP presented improved heat transfer property and flame retardancy.
    • Functional bracers based on KFRP were successfully manufactured.

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  • [1]
    Nayak R, Crouch I, Kanesalingam S, et al. Body armor for stab and spike protection, Part 1: Scientific literature review. Textile Research Journal, 2018, 88 (7): 812–832. doi: 10.1177/0040517517690623
    [2]
    Lou L, Chen K, Fan J. Advanced materials for personal thermal and moisture management of health care workers wearing PPE. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 2021, 146: 100639. doi: 10.1016/j.mser.2021.100639
    [3]
    Liu X, Shao Q, Cao J, et al. Superamphiphobic and flame-resistant cotton fabrics for protective clothing. Cellulose, 2022, 29: 619–632. doi: 10.1007/s10570-021-04212-y
    [4]
    Feng Y, He C, Wen Y et al. Multi-functional interface tailoring for enhancing thermal conductivity, flame retardancy and dynamic mechanical property of epoxy/Al2O3 composites. Composites Science and Technology, 2018, 160: 42–49. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.03.009
    [5]
    Zhao X, Copenhaver K, Wang L, et al. Recycling of natural fiber composites: Challenges and opportunities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2022, 177: 105962. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105962
    [6]
    Ye Y Y, Liang S D, Feng P, et al. Recyclable LRS FRP composites for engineering structures: Current status and future opportunities. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 212: 108689. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.108689
    [7]
    Polyzos E, Van Hemelrijck D, Pyl L. Numerical modelling of the elastic properties of 3D-printed specimens of thermoplastic matrix reinforced with continuous fibres. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 211: 108671. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.108671
    [8]
    Naveen J, Jawaid M, Zainudin E S, et al. Thermal degradation and viscoelastic properties of Kevlar/Cocos nucifera sheath reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. Composite Structures, 2019, 219: 194–202. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.03.079
    [9]
    Wang W, Zhou J, Wang S, et al. Enhanced Kevlar-based triboelectric nanogenerator with anti-impact and sensing performance towards wireless alarm system. Nano Energy, 2022, 91: 106657. doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2021.106657
    [10]
    Wang H, Wang H, Wang Y, et al. Laser writing of Janus graphene/Kevlar textile for intelligent protective clothing. ACS Nano, 2020, 14 (3): 3219–3226. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.9b08638
    [11]
    Sun W, Zhang J, Xie M, et al. Ultrathin aramid/COF heterolayered membrane for solid-state Li-metal batteries. Nano Letters, 2020, 20: 8120–8126. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03133
    [12]
    Fu S, Yu B, Tang W, et al. Mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced by hydrolyzed and microfibrillated Kevlar fibers. Composites Science and Technology, 2018, 163: 141–150. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.03.020
    [13]
    Chen Y, Yin Q, Zhang X, et al. Rational design of multifunctional properties for styrene-butadiene rubber reinforced by modified Kevlar nanofibers. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2019, 166: 196–203. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.11.132
    [14]
    Yuan F, Salpekar D, Baburaj A, et al. Fiber-reinforced monolithic supercapacitors with interdigitated interfaces. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2021, 9: 11033–11041. doi: 10.1039/D1TA00424G
    [15]
    Lyu J, Liu Z, Wu X, et al. Nanofibrous Kevlar aerogel films and their phase-change composites for highly efficient infrared stealth. ACS Nano, 2019, 13 (2): 2236–2245. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b08913
    [16]
    Zheng L, Zhang K, Liu L, et al. Biomimetic architectured Kevlar/polyimide composites with ultra-light, superior anti-compressive and flame-retardant properties. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2022, 230: 109485. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109485
    [17]
    Lu W, Yu W, Zhang B, et al. Kevlar fibers reinforced straw wastes-polyethylene composites: Combining toughness, strength and self-extinguishing capabilities. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 223: 109117. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109117
    [18]
    Yuan F, Wang S, Zhang S, et al. A flexible viscoelastic coupling cable with self-adapted electrical properties and anti-impact performance toward shapeable electronic devices. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2019, 7: 8412–8422. doi: 10.1039/c9tc01980d
    [19]
    Yuan F, Liu S, Zhou J, et al. Smart touchless triboelectric nanogenerator towards safeguard and 3D morphological awareness. Nano Energy, 2021, 86: 106071. doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2021.106071
    [20]
    Ding L, Zhang S, Wang Q, et al. Self-healing and printable elastomer with excellent shear stiffening and magnetorheological properties. Composites Science and Technology, 2022, 223: 109430. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2022.109430
    [21]
    Zhang S, Wang S, Zheng Y, et al. Coaxial 3D-Printed and kirigami-inspired deployable wearable electronics for complex body surfaces. Composites Science and Technology, 2021, 216: 109041. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.109041
    [22]
    Sang M, Zhang J, Liu S, et al. Advanced MXene/shear stiffening composite-based sensor with high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding and anti-impacting bi-protection properties for smart wearable device. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2022, 440: 135869. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2022.135869
    [23]
    Wang S, Ding L, Wang Y et al. Multifunctional triboelectric nanogenerator towards impact energy harvesting and safeguards. Nano Energy, 2019, 59: 434–442. doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.02.060
    [24]
    Wang Y, Gao Y, Liu Y, et al. Optimal aperture and digital speckle optimization in digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 2021, 61: 677–684. doi: 10.1007/s11340-021-00694-w
    [25]
    Su Y, Gao Z, Tu H, et al. Uniformity and isotropy of speckle pattern cause the doubled random error phenomenon in digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 2020, 131: 106097. doi: 10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106097
    [26]
    Zhao A, Shi X Y, Sun S H, et al. Insights into the Payne effect of carbon black filled styrene-butadiene rubber compounds. Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, 2021, 39: 81–90. doi: 10.1007/s10118-020-2462-2
    [27]
    Xu H, Fan X, Song Y, et al. Reinforcement and Payne effect of hydrophobic silica filled natural rubber nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 2020, 187: 107943. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107943
    [28]
    Binti Yusoff R, Takagi H, Nakagaito A N. Tensile and flexural properties of polylactic acid-based hybrid green composites reinforced by kenaf, bamboo and coir fibers. Industrial Crops and Products, 2016, 94: 562–573. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.09.017
    [29]
    Kim H, Kim G, Lee S, et al. Strain rate effects on the compressive and tensile behavior of bundle-type polyamide fiber-reinforced cementitious composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2019, 160: 50–65. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.10.008
    [30]
    Han Y, Shi X, Wang S, et al. Nest-like hetero-structured BNNS@SiCnws fillers and significant improvement on thermal conductivities of epoxy composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 210: 108666. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.108666
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    Figure  1.  (a) Illustration of the fabrication method for KFRPs. (b) The surface and cross-sectional morphology of SSE and KFRP-15%. (c) Photographs of the as-prepared KFRPs to bear loads. (d) Storage modulus vs. shear frequency of KFRPs when the shear strain was 0.1%. (e) The Payne effects of KFRPs.

    Figure  2.  Tensile stress-strain curves of KFRP whose fibers were (a) vertical and (b) horizontal at a speed of 500 mm/min. (c) The typical stretching process of KFRP-15%. The tensile stress-strain curves of KFRE-15% in the (d) vertical and (e) horizontal types at different tensile rates. (f) Definition of fracture toughness. (g) Fracture toughness of KFRP. (h) Fracture toughness of KFRP-15% with vertical fiber orientation at different tensile rates.

    Figure  3.  (a) The impact forces vs. time of KFRPs loaded by drop hammer falling from 100 mm. Falling height dependent (b) impact force and (c) impact time. The (d) velocities and (e) displacements of the drop hammer during impact when the initial height was 300 mm. (f) The forces of SSE in two consecutive impacts. (g) The forces of KFRP-15% in ten repeated impacts. Morphologies of (h) SSE after twice impact and (i) KFRP-15% after tenth hit.

    Figure  4.  The force-displacement curves of KFRP during (a) spike punch and (c) knife cutting at a rate of 1 mm/s. The force-displacement curves of 15%-KFRP at different (b) spike and (d) knife acupuncture speeds. The number of dynamic penetrating layers of KFRP when (e) spike and (f) knife puncturing. Microscopic photos of destruction topography: (g) spike punching and (h) knife cutting.

    Figure  5.  (a) The thermal conductivity, (b) thermal diffusivity, and (c) specific heat of KFRP. (d) Infrared thermal images of the top surfaces of KFRP at different times from 0 min to 3 min.

    Figure  6.  (a) Time to ignition, (b) HRR, (c) THR, (d) SPR, (e) TSP, and (f) mass loss of KFRP.

    Figure  7.  (a) Photographs of the bracers based on KFRP-15% and EPE. (b) Infrared thermal images of bracers. (c) The process of the sharp knife impacting KFRP-15% and EPE in free fall. (d) Burning photos of the bracers based on KFRP-15% and EPE.

    [1]
    Nayak R, Crouch I, Kanesalingam S, et al. Body armor for stab and spike protection, Part 1: Scientific literature review. Textile Research Journal, 2018, 88 (7): 812–832. doi: 10.1177/0040517517690623
    [2]
    Lou L, Chen K, Fan J. Advanced materials for personal thermal and moisture management of health care workers wearing PPE. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 2021, 146: 100639. doi: 10.1016/j.mser.2021.100639
    [3]
    Liu X, Shao Q, Cao J, et al. Superamphiphobic and flame-resistant cotton fabrics for protective clothing. Cellulose, 2022, 29: 619–632. doi: 10.1007/s10570-021-04212-y
    [4]
    Feng Y, He C, Wen Y et al. Multi-functional interface tailoring for enhancing thermal conductivity, flame retardancy and dynamic mechanical property of epoxy/Al2O3 composites. Composites Science and Technology, 2018, 160: 42–49. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.03.009
    [5]
    Zhao X, Copenhaver K, Wang L, et al. Recycling of natural fiber composites: Challenges and opportunities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2022, 177: 105962. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105962
    [6]
    Ye Y Y, Liang S D, Feng P, et al. Recyclable LRS FRP composites for engineering structures: Current status and future opportunities. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 212: 108689. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.108689
    [7]
    Polyzos E, Van Hemelrijck D, Pyl L. Numerical modelling of the elastic properties of 3D-printed specimens of thermoplastic matrix reinforced with continuous fibres. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 211: 108671. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.108671
    [8]
    Naveen J, Jawaid M, Zainudin E S, et al. Thermal degradation and viscoelastic properties of Kevlar/Cocos nucifera sheath reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. Composite Structures, 2019, 219: 194–202. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.03.079
    [9]
    Wang W, Zhou J, Wang S, et al. Enhanced Kevlar-based triboelectric nanogenerator with anti-impact and sensing performance towards wireless alarm system. Nano Energy, 2022, 91: 106657. doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2021.106657
    [10]
    Wang H, Wang H, Wang Y, et al. Laser writing of Janus graphene/Kevlar textile for intelligent protective clothing. ACS Nano, 2020, 14 (3): 3219–3226. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.9b08638
    [11]
    Sun W, Zhang J, Xie M, et al. Ultrathin aramid/COF heterolayered membrane for solid-state Li-metal batteries. Nano Letters, 2020, 20: 8120–8126. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03133
    [12]
    Fu S, Yu B, Tang W, et al. Mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced by hydrolyzed and microfibrillated Kevlar fibers. Composites Science and Technology, 2018, 163: 141–150. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.03.020
    [13]
    Chen Y, Yin Q, Zhang X, et al. Rational design of multifunctional properties for styrene-butadiene rubber reinforced by modified Kevlar nanofibers. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2019, 166: 196–203. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.11.132
    [14]
    Yuan F, Salpekar D, Baburaj A, et al. Fiber-reinforced monolithic supercapacitors with interdigitated interfaces. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2021, 9: 11033–11041. doi: 10.1039/D1TA00424G
    [15]
    Lyu J, Liu Z, Wu X, et al. Nanofibrous Kevlar aerogel films and their phase-change composites for highly efficient infrared stealth. ACS Nano, 2019, 13 (2): 2236–2245. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b08913
    [16]
    Zheng L, Zhang K, Liu L, et al. Biomimetic architectured Kevlar/polyimide composites with ultra-light, superior anti-compressive and flame-retardant properties. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2022, 230: 109485. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109485
    [17]
    Lu W, Yu W, Zhang B, et al. Kevlar fibers reinforced straw wastes-polyethylene composites: Combining toughness, strength and self-extinguishing capabilities. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 223: 109117. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109117
    [18]
    Yuan F, Wang S, Zhang S, et al. A flexible viscoelastic coupling cable with self-adapted electrical properties and anti-impact performance toward shapeable electronic devices. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2019, 7: 8412–8422. doi: 10.1039/c9tc01980d
    [19]
    Yuan F, Liu S, Zhou J, et al. Smart touchless triboelectric nanogenerator towards safeguard and 3D morphological awareness. Nano Energy, 2021, 86: 106071. doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2021.106071
    [20]
    Ding L, Zhang S, Wang Q, et al. Self-healing and printable elastomer with excellent shear stiffening and magnetorheological properties. Composites Science and Technology, 2022, 223: 109430. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2022.109430
    [21]
    Zhang S, Wang S, Zheng Y, et al. Coaxial 3D-Printed and kirigami-inspired deployable wearable electronics for complex body surfaces. Composites Science and Technology, 2021, 216: 109041. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.109041
    [22]
    Sang M, Zhang J, Liu S, et al. Advanced MXene/shear stiffening composite-based sensor with high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding and anti-impacting bi-protection properties for smart wearable device. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2022, 440: 135869. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2022.135869
    [23]
    Wang S, Ding L, Wang Y et al. Multifunctional triboelectric nanogenerator towards impact energy harvesting and safeguards. Nano Energy, 2019, 59: 434–442. doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.02.060
    [24]
    Wang Y, Gao Y, Liu Y, et al. Optimal aperture and digital speckle optimization in digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 2021, 61: 677–684. doi: 10.1007/s11340-021-00694-w
    [25]
    Su Y, Gao Z, Tu H, et al. Uniformity and isotropy of speckle pattern cause the doubled random error phenomenon in digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 2020, 131: 106097. doi: 10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106097
    [26]
    Zhao A, Shi X Y, Sun S H, et al. Insights into the Payne effect of carbon black filled styrene-butadiene rubber compounds. Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, 2021, 39: 81–90. doi: 10.1007/s10118-020-2462-2
    [27]
    Xu H, Fan X, Song Y, et al. Reinforcement and Payne effect of hydrophobic silica filled natural rubber nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 2020, 187: 107943. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107943
    [28]
    Binti Yusoff R, Takagi H, Nakagaito A N. Tensile and flexural properties of polylactic acid-based hybrid green composites reinforced by kenaf, bamboo and coir fibers. Industrial Crops and Products, 2016, 94: 562–573. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.09.017
    [29]
    Kim H, Kim G, Lee S, et al. Strain rate effects on the compressive and tensile behavior of bundle-type polyamide fiber-reinforced cementitious composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2019, 160: 50–65. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.10.008
    [30]
    Han Y, Shi X, Wang S, et al. Nest-like hetero-structured BNNS@SiCnws fillers and significant improvement on thermal conductivities of epoxy composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021, 210: 108666. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.108666

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