ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Engineering & Materials

Enhancing the energy potential of food waste digestate via catalytic co-hydrothermal treatment: The pyrolysis and combustion performance of hydrochar

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2022-0049
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  • Author Bio:

    Xiefei Zhu is currently a postdoctoral fellow supported by the Hong Kong Scholars Program. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Science and Technology of China in 2020. He is dedicated to the high-value utilization of organic solid waste such as biomass, converting organic solid waste into fuel and added-value chemicals. He also focuses on the application of biochar in adsorption and CO2 reduction, developing various types of efficient carbon-based adsorbents

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: xiefzhu@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 15 March 2022
  • Accepted Date: 09 May 2022
  • Catalytic hydrothermal treatment is considered one of the most promising technologies for recovering energy from carbonaceous wastes. In so doing, it facilitates the realization of waste-to-energy and resource utilization efforts. In this study, hydrochar was prepared from food waste digestate and wood waste via catalytic co-hydrothermal treatment using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as alkali catalysts. Based on the physicochemical properties of hydrochar, including proximate analysis, element distribution, high heating value (HHV), surface functional groups, and morphology, the gaseous products of pyrolysis and the combustion performance of hydrochar were further investigated using TG-FTIR-MS and TG-DSC, respectively. In addition, the hydrochar combustion kinetics and thermodynamics were probed. Specifically, the hydrochar obtained from Na2CO3 catalysis (HC-Na) demonstrated a higher heating value (26.85 MJ·kg−1) with higher calcium retention, while the hydrochar obtained from K2CO3 catalysis (HC-K) had a greater number of functional groups and larger carbon content. Moreover, the pyrolysis gaseous products of hydrochar were rich in hydrocarbons. HC-K exhibited better comprehensive combustion performance with the activation energy (Ea) values of 79.32 kJ·mol−1 and 67.91 kJ·mol−1 using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods, respectively. These results provide a prospect for enhancing the comprehensive utilization of carbonaceous solid waste through catalytic co-hydrothermal treatment.
    Hydrochar derived from food waste digestate through catalytic co-hydrothermal treatment has excellent energy potential.
    Catalytic hydrothermal treatment is considered one of the most promising technologies for recovering energy from carbonaceous wastes. In so doing, it facilitates the realization of waste-to-energy and resource utilization efforts. In this study, hydrochar was prepared from food waste digestate and wood waste via catalytic co-hydrothermal treatment using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as alkali catalysts. Based on the physicochemical properties of hydrochar, including proximate analysis, element distribution, high heating value (HHV), surface functional groups, and morphology, the gaseous products of pyrolysis and the combustion performance of hydrochar were further investigated using TG-FTIR-MS and TG-DSC, respectively. In addition, the hydrochar combustion kinetics and thermodynamics were probed. Specifically, the hydrochar obtained from Na2CO3 catalysis (HC-Na) demonstrated a higher heating value (26.85 MJ·kg−1) with higher calcium retention, while the hydrochar obtained from K2CO3 catalysis (HC-K) had a greater number of functional groups and larger carbon content. Moreover, the pyrolysis gaseous products of hydrochar were rich in hydrocarbons. HC-K exhibited better comprehensive combustion performance with the activation energy (Ea) values of 79.32 kJ·mol−1 and 67.91 kJ·mol−1 using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods, respectively. These results provide a prospect for enhancing the comprehensive utilization of carbonaceous solid waste through catalytic co-hydrothermal treatment.
    • Carbon-rich hydrochar with a high heating value was prepared from food waste digestate and wood waste via catalytic co-hydrothermal treatment.
    • Hydrochar possessed abundant functional groups and retained alkali metal elements.
    • Hydrochar demonstrated comprehensive combustion performance and superior combustion reactivity.

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    [2]
    Soltani S, Khanian N, Shean Yaw Choong T, et al. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of sulfonated TiO2-GO core–shell solid spheres as heterogeneous esterification mesoporous catalyst for biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management, 2021, 238: 114165. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2021.114165
    [3]
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    [4]
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    Akyürek Z. Sustainable valorization of animal manure and recycled polyester: Co-pyrolysis synergy. Sustainability, 2019, 11 (8): 2280. doi: 10.3390/su11082280
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    [9]
    Xu J, Dong X, Wang Y. Hydrothermal liquefaction of macroalgae over various solids, basic or acidic oxides and metal salt catalyst: Products distribution and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 2020, 151: 112458. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112458
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    [11]
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    [12]
    Zhang C, Shao M, Wu H, et al. Management and valorization of digestate from food waste via hydrothermal. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2021, 171: 105639. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105639
    [13]
    Dutta S, He M, Xiong X, et al. Sustainable management and recycling of food waste anaerobic digestate: A review. Bioresource Technology, 2021, 341: 125915. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125915
    [14]
    Zhang X, Zhang L, Li A. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass and waste polyvinyl chloride for high-quality solid fuel production: Hydrochar properties and its combustion and pyrolysis behaviors. Bioresource Technology, 2019, 294: 122113. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122113
    [15]
    Xu D, Wang Y, Lin G, et al. Co-hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae and sewage sludge in subcritical water: Ash effects on bio-oil production. Renewable Energy, 2019, 138: 1143–1151. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.02.020
    [16]
    Lang Q, Zhang B, Liu Z, et al. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of corn stalk and swine manure: Combustion behavior of hydrochar by thermogravimetric analysis. Bioresource Technology, 2019, 271: 75–83. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.09.100
    [17]
    Lu X, Ma X, Chen X. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge and lignocellulosic biomass: Fuel properties and heavy metal transformation behaviour of hydrochars. Energy, 2021, 221: 119896. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2021.119896
    [18]
    Sharma H B, Dubey B K. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of food waste with yard waste for solid biofuel production: Hydrochar characterization and its pelletization. Waste Management, 2020, 118: 521–533. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.09.009
    [19]
    Koley S, Khadase M S, Mathimani T, et al. Catalytic and non-catalytic hydrothermal processing of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass for bio-crude production: A sustainable energy perspective. Energy Conversion and Management, 2018, 163: 111–121. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.02.052
    [20]
    Saber M, Golzary A, Hosseinpour M, et al. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae using nanocatalyst. Applied Energy, 2016, 183: 566–576. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.09.017
    [21]
    Imai A, Hardi F, Lundqvist P, et al. Alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment of sawdust for production of a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification. Applied Energy, 2018, 231: 594–599. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.150
    [22]
    Shah A A, Toor S S, Conti F, et al. Hydrothermal liquefaction of high ash containing sewage sludge at sub and supercritical conditions. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2020, 135: 105504. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2020.105504
    [23]
    Xu D, Lin G, Guo S, et al. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of algae and upgrading of biocrude: A critical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2018, 97: 103–118. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.08.042
    [24]
    Nagappan S, Bhosale R R, Nguyen D D, et al. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass into bio-oils and other value-added products: A review. Fuel, 2021, 285: 119053. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119053
    [25]
    Chong C T, Mong G R, Ng J-H, et al. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic studies of horse manure using thermogravimetric analysis. Energy Conversion and Management, 2019, 180: 1260–1267. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.11.071
    [26]
    Boubacar Laougé Z, Merdun H. Kinetic analysis of Pearl Millet (Penissetum glaucum (L) R. Br.) under pyrolysis and combustion to investigate its bioenergy potential. Fuel, 2020, 267: 117172. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117172
    [27]
    Zhu X, Li K, Zhang L, et al. Synergistic effects on thermochemical behaviors of co-pyrolysis between bio-oil distillation residue and bituminous coal. Energy Conversion and Management, 2017, 151: 209–215. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.08.084
    [28]
    Zhang L, Li K, Zhu X. Study on two-step pyrolysis of soybean stalk by TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2017, 127: 91–98. doi: 10.1016/j.jaap.2017.08.019
    [29]
    Zhu X, Luo Z, Diao R, et al. Combining torrefaction pretreatment and co-pyrolysis to upgrade biochar derived from bio-oil distillation residue and walnut shell. Energy Conversion and Management, 2019, 199: 111970. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.111970
    [30]
    Zhu X, Luo Z, Guo W, et al. Reutilization of biomass pyrolysis waste: Tailoring dual-doped biochar from refining residue of bio-oil through one-step self-assembly. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2022, 343: 131046. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131046
    [31]
    Sun C, Li C, Tan H, et al. Synergistic effects of wood fiber and polylactic acid during co-pyrolysis using TG-FTIR-MS and Py-GC/MS. Energy Conversion and Management, 2019, 202: 112212. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.112212
    [32]
    Kai X, Li R, Yang T, et al. Study on the co-pyrolysis of rice straw and high density polyethylene blends using TG-FTIR-MS. Energy Conversion and Management, 2017, 146: 20–33. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.05.026
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    Zeng K, Yang X, Xie Y, et al. Molten salt pyrolysis of biomass: The evaluation of molten salt. Fuel, 2021, 302: 121103. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121103
    [35]
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    [36]
    Liu Y, Wang Z, Wan K, et al. In situ measurements of the release characteristics and catalytic effects of different chemical forms of sodium during combustion of Zhundong coal. Energy & Fuels, 2018, 32 (6): 6595–6602. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b00773
    [37]
    Wang T, Fu T, Chen K, et al. Co-combustion behavior of dyeing sludge and rice husk by using TG-MS: Thermal conversion, gas evolution, and kinetic analyses. Bioresource Technology, 2020, 311: 123527. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123527
    [38]
    Ma Q, Han L, Huang G. Effect of water-washing of wheat straw and hydrothermal temperature on its hydrochar evolution and combustion properties. Bioresource Technology, 2018, 269: 96–103. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.08.082
    [39]
    Guo S, Tan J, Yang Z, et al. Mixed-combustion characteristics and reaction kinetics of municipal sludge and corn straw in micro-fluidized bed. Energies, 2022, 15 (7): 2637. doi: 10.3390/en15072637
    [40]
    Loy A C M, Gan D K W, Yusup S, et al. Thermogravimetric kinetic modelling of in-situ catalytic pyrolytic conversion of rice husk to bioenergy using rice hull ash catalyst. Bioresource Technology, 2018, 261: 213–222. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.04.020
    [41]
    Ahmad M S, Mehmood M A, Al Ayed O S, et al. Kinetic analyses and pyrolytic behavior of Para grass (Urochloa mutica) for its bioenergy potential. Bioresource Technology, 2017, 224: 708–713. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.090
  • 加载中

Catalog

    Figure  1.  The (a) infrared spectra and (b) XRD patterns of hydrochar.

    Figure  2.  FTIR spectrum of the gaseous products of hydrochar as a function of temperature for (a) HC-K and (b) HC-Na.

    Figure  3.  Evolution curves of the main ionized fragments during hydrochar pyrolysis for HC-K (a–c) and HC-Na (d–f).

    Figure  4.  Combustion performance (TG-DTG-DSC curves) of hydrochar.

    Figure  5.  The isoconversional plots of hydrochar at different conversion rates estimated using the KAS and FWO methods for HC-K (a–b) and HC-Na (c–d).

    [1]
    Yang Q, Zhou H, Bartocci P, et al. Prospective contributions of biomass pyrolysis to China's 2050 carbon reduction and renewable energy goals. Nature Communication, 2021, 12 (1): 1698. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21868-z
    [2]
    Soltani S, Khanian N, Shean Yaw Choong T, et al. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of sulfonated TiO2-GO core–shell solid spheres as heterogeneous esterification mesoporous catalyst for biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management, 2021, 238: 114165. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2021.114165
    [3]
    Zhao S, Li J, Chen C, et al. Interpretable machine learning for predicting and evaluating hydrogen production via supercritical water gasification of biomass. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2021, 316: 128244. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.128244
    [4]
    Zeng J, Xiao R, Yuan J. High-quality syngas production from biomass driven by chemical looping on a PY-GA coupled reactor. Energy, 2021, 214: 118846. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2020.118846
    [5]
    Akyürek Z. Sustainable valorization of animal manure and recycled polyester: Co-pyrolysis synergy. Sustainability, 2019, 11 (8): 2280. doi: 10.3390/su11082280
    [6]
    Aierzhati A, Watson J, Si B, et al. Development of a mobile, pilot scale hydrothermal liquefaction reactor: Food waste conversion product analysis and techno-economic assessment. Energy Conversion and Management: X, 2021, 10: 100076. doi: 10.1016/j.ecmx.2021.100076
    [7]
    Lu J, Xu S. Post-treatment of food waste digestate towards land application: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2021, 303: 127033. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127033
    [8]
    Manu M K, Li D, Liwen L, et al. A review on nitrogen dynamics and mitigation strategies of food waste digestate composting. Bioresource Technology, 2021, 334: 125032. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125032
    [9]
    Xu J, Dong X, Wang Y. Hydrothermal liquefaction of macroalgae over various solids, basic or acidic oxides and metal salt catalyst: Products distribution and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, 2020, 151: 112458. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112458
    [10]
    Zhang C, Shao M, Wu H, et al. Mechanism insights into hydrothermal dewatering of food waste digestate for products valorization. Science of The Total Environment, 2022, 804: 150145. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150145
    [11]
    Xie X, Peng C, Song X, et al. Pyrolysis kinetics of the hydrothermal carbons derived from microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization of food waste digestate. Energy, 2022, 245: 123269. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2022.123269
    [12]
    Zhang C, Shao M, Wu H, et al. Management and valorization of digestate from food waste via hydrothermal. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2021, 171: 105639. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105639
    [13]
    Dutta S, He M, Xiong X, et al. Sustainable management and recycling of food waste anaerobic digestate: A review. Bioresource Technology, 2021, 341: 125915. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125915
    [14]
    Zhang X, Zhang L, Li A. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass and waste polyvinyl chloride for high-quality solid fuel production: Hydrochar properties and its combustion and pyrolysis behaviors. Bioresource Technology, 2019, 294: 122113. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122113
    [15]
    Xu D, Wang Y, Lin G, et al. Co-hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae and sewage sludge in subcritical water: Ash effects on bio-oil production. Renewable Energy, 2019, 138: 1143–1151. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.02.020
    [16]
    Lang Q, Zhang B, Liu Z, et al. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of corn stalk and swine manure: Combustion behavior of hydrochar by thermogravimetric analysis. Bioresource Technology, 2019, 271: 75–83. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.09.100
    [17]
    Lu X, Ma X, Chen X. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge and lignocellulosic biomass: Fuel properties and heavy metal transformation behaviour of hydrochars. Energy, 2021, 221: 119896. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2021.119896
    [18]
    Sharma H B, Dubey B K. Co-hydrothermal carbonization of food waste with yard waste for solid biofuel production: Hydrochar characterization and its pelletization. Waste Management, 2020, 118: 521–533. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.09.009
    [19]
    Koley S, Khadase M S, Mathimani T, et al. Catalytic and non-catalytic hydrothermal processing of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass for bio-crude production: A sustainable energy perspective. Energy Conversion and Management, 2018, 163: 111–121. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.02.052
    [20]
    Saber M, Golzary A, Hosseinpour M, et al. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae using nanocatalyst. Applied Energy, 2016, 183: 566–576. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.09.017
    [21]
    Imai A, Hardi F, Lundqvist P, et al. Alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment of sawdust for production of a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification. Applied Energy, 2018, 231: 594–599. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.150
    [22]
    Shah A A, Toor S S, Conti F, et al. Hydrothermal liquefaction of high ash containing sewage sludge at sub and supercritical conditions. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2020, 135: 105504. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2020.105504
    [23]
    Xu D, Lin G, Guo S, et al. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of algae and upgrading of biocrude: A critical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2018, 97: 103–118. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.08.042
    [24]
    Nagappan S, Bhosale R R, Nguyen D D, et al. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass into bio-oils and other value-added products: A review. Fuel, 2021, 285: 119053. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119053
    [25]
    Chong C T, Mong G R, Ng J-H, et al. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic studies of horse manure using thermogravimetric analysis. Energy Conversion and Management, 2019, 180: 1260–1267. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.11.071
    [26]
    Boubacar Laougé Z, Merdun H. Kinetic analysis of Pearl Millet (Penissetum glaucum (L) R. Br.) under pyrolysis and combustion to investigate its bioenergy potential. Fuel, 2020, 267: 117172. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117172
    [27]
    Zhu X, Li K, Zhang L, et al. Synergistic effects on thermochemical behaviors of co-pyrolysis between bio-oil distillation residue and bituminous coal. Energy Conversion and Management, 2017, 151: 209–215. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.08.084
    [28]
    Zhang L, Li K, Zhu X. Study on two-step pyrolysis of soybean stalk by TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2017, 127: 91–98. doi: 10.1016/j.jaap.2017.08.019
    [29]
    Zhu X, Luo Z, Diao R, et al. Combining torrefaction pretreatment and co-pyrolysis to upgrade biochar derived from bio-oil distillation residue and walnut shell. Energy Conversion and Management, 2019, 199: 111970. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.111970
    [30]
    Zhu X, Luo Z, Guo W, et al. Reutilization of biomass pyrolysis waste: Tailoring dual-doped biochar from refining residue of bio-oil through one-step self-assembly. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2022, 343: 131046. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131046
    [31]
    Sun C, Li C, Tan H, et al. Synergistic effects of wood fiber and polylactic acid during co-pyrolysis using TG-FTIR-MS and Py-GC/MS. Energy Conversion and Management, 2019, 202: 112212. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.112212
    [32]
    Kai X, Li R, Yang T, et al. Study on the co-pyrolysis of rice straw and high density polyethylene blends using TG-FTIR-MS. Energy Conversion and Management, 2017, 146: 20–33. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.05.026
    [33]
    Kai X, Yang T, Shen S, et al. TG-FTIR-MS study of synergistic effects during co-pyrolysis of corn stalk and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Energy Conversion and Management, 2019, 181: 202–213. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.11.065
    [34]
    Zeng K, Yang X, Xie Y, et al. Molten salt pyrolysis of biomass: The evaluation of molten salt. Fuel, 2021, 302: 121103. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121103
    [35]
    Safar M, Lin B-J, Chen W-H, et al. Catalytic effects of potassium on biomass pyrolysis, combustion and torrefaction. Applied Energy, 2019, 235: 346–355. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.10.065
    [36]
    Liu Y, Wang Z, Wan K, et al. In situ measurements of the release characteristics and catalytic effects of different chemical forms of sodium during combustion of Zhundong coal. Energy & Fuels, 2018, 32 (6): 6595–6602. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b00773
    [37]
    Wang T, Fu T, Chen K, et al. Co-combustion behavior of dyeing sludge and rice husk by using TG-MS: Thermal conversion, gas evolution, and kinetic analyses. Bioresource Technology, 2020, 311: 123527. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123527
    [38]
    Ma Q, Han L, Huang G. Effect of water-washing of wheat straw and hydrothermal temperature on its hydrochar evolution and combustion properties. Bioresource Technology, 2018, 269: 96–103. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.08.082
    [39]
    Guo S, Tan J, Yang Z, et al. Mixed-combustion characteristics and reaction kinetics of municipal sludge and corn straw in micro-fluidized bed. Energies, 2022, 15 (7): 2637. doi: 10.3390/en15072637
    [40]
    Loy A C M, Gan D K W, Yusup S, et al. Thermogravimetric kinetic modelling of in-situ catalytic pyrolytic conversion of rice husk to bioenergy using rice hull ash catalyst. Bioresource Technology, 2018, 261: 213–222. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.04.020
    [41]
    Ahmad M S, Mehmood M A, Al Ayed O S, et al. Kinetic analyses and pyrolytic behavior of Para grass (Urochloa mutica) for its bioenergy potential. Bioresource Technology, 2017, 224: 708–713. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.090

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