ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Life Sciences 29 September 2023

Cryopreservation of oocytes: history, achievements and future

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2023-0072
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  • Author Bio:

    Shiyu Zhao is a doctoral candidate of the Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, under the supervision of Prof. Gang Zhao. Her research focuses on oocyte cryopreservation

    Gang Zhao obtained his Ph.D. degree from the University of Science and Technology of China. He is currently a Professor at the University of Science and Technology of China. His current research focuses on cryo-biomedical engineering, micro- and nano-technologies, and biosensors

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: zhaog@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 25 April 2023
  • Accepted Date: 26 June 2023
  • Available Online: 29 September 2023
  • There have been increasing requirements for women’s fertility preservation due to oncological and nononcological reasons in recent years, and meeting these demands will be a hot topic in the coming years. Oocyte cryopreservation is a workable option for preserving women’s fertility, and great advances have already been made and much progress has been made in mammalian gene banking and human oocyte banks. In this paper, we systematically introduce the history of oocyte cryopreservation and vitrification technology and highlight the vitrification carrier. Furthermore, we summarize the fundamentals of oocyte vitrification and discuss the effects of vitrification on oocyte quality. Strategies to improve the effect of oocyte cryopreservation are also proposed. At the end of this review, we conclude oocyte cryopreservation and outline future perspectives.
    Schematic represents the history of human and mouse oocytes cryopreservation, the achievements of oocytes cryopreservation and strategies to improve the efficiency of oocytes cryopreservation.
    There have been increasing requirements for women’s fertility preservation due to oncological and nononcological reasons in recent years, and meeting these demands will be a hot topic in the coming years. Oocyte cryopreservation is a workable option for preserving women’s fertility, and great advances have already been made and much progress has been made in mammalian gene banking and human oocyte banks. In this paper, we systematically introduce the history of oocyte cryopreservation and vitrification technology and highlight the vitrification carrier. Furthermore, we summarize the fundamentals of oocyte vitrification and discuss the effects of vitrification on oocyte quality. Strategies to improve the effect of oocyte cryopreservation are also proposed. At the end of this review, we conclude oocyte cryopreservation and outline future perspectives.
    • We introduce the history of oocyte cryopreservation.
    • We summarize the fundamentals of oocyte vitrification and discuss the effects of vitrification on oocyte quality.
    • We propose strategies to improve the effect of oocyte cryopreservation.

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    Figure  1.  The history development of human and mouse oocyte cryopreservation.

    Figure  2.  Different kinds of vitrification carriers. (a) Cryotip; (b) Cryotop; (c) high security vitrification kit. (a, c) Reproduced with permission from Ref. [38]. Copyright 2012, University of Cambridge. (d) Plastic straw; (e) glass capillary; (f) electron microscope grid.

    Figure  3.  Fundamentals of oocyte vitrification. (a) Typical temperature profiles for oocyte vitrification[57]. (b) Typical cell volume excursions for oocyte vitrification[57]. (c) Typical human oocyte vitrification protocol.

    Figure  4.  The ice regulation properties of AFGPs and the application of AFGP mimics. (a) The model of IBF and NIBF of AFGP. (b) The side view of IBF from TmAFP contact with ice plane by molecular dynamics. (a, b) Reproduced with permission from Ref. [124]. Copyright 2016, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (c) Thermal hysteresis (TH). Reproduced with permission from Ref. [125]. Copyright 2014, Elsevier. (d) The relationship between TH and AFGPs from different origins[126]. (e) The shape of a single ice crystal in Tris buffer. (f) The shape of a single ice crystal in buffer containing MpdAFP along the a-axis. (g) The shape of a single ice crystal in buffer containing MpdAFP along the c-axis. (e–g) Reproduced with permission from Ref. [124]. Copyright 2016, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (h) The IRI activity of different CPAs. (i) Survival rate of mouse oocytes. (j) JC-1 staining to measure the MMP of vitrified oocytes. (h–j) Reproduced with permission from Ref. [127]. Copyright 2020, American Chemical Society.

    Figure  5.  Laser heat suppressed ice recrystalization and devitrification for cryopreservation. (a) Laser warming device. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [148]. Copyright 2018, the Royal Society of Chemistry. (b) The possible mechanism of laser improving the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation. (c) Overview of laser chamber. (d) Thermal response of oocytes when subjected to laser-induced warming rates of 1 × 107 °C/min. (c, d) Reproduced with permission from Ref. [156]. Copyright 2014,Elsevier. (e) Laser nanowarming with gold nanorods. (f) Comparison of the survival rate of cryopreserved zebrafish embryos. (e, f) Reproduced with permission from Ref. [157]. Copyright 2014, Elsevier.

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