ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Physics 28 April 2023

Temperature-robust diamond magnetometry based on the double-transition method

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https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2022-0150
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  • Author Bio:

    Caijin Xie is a postgraudate student of University of Science and Technology of China. His research focuses on quantum sensing

    Xing Rong is a Professor at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). He received the B.S. degree in 2005 and the Ph.D. degree in 2011 from USTC. He joined the Department of Modern Physics of USTC as a Professor in 2014. His research interest includes quantum control of spins in solids, quantum computation, quantum sensing, and exploring new physics beyond the standard model with micrometer scale

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: xrong@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 16 October 2022
  • Accepted Date: 10 December 2022
  • Available Online: 28 April 2023
  • As a promising solid-state sensor at room temperature, diamond magnetometers based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers have been developed tremendously in recent years. Many studies have demonstrated its potential for achieving high spatial resolution and sensitivity. However, the temperature dependence of the zero-field splitting D of NV centers poses an enormous challenge for the application of diamond magnetometry, since it is difficult to avoid temperature drift in most application scenarios. Here, we demonstrate a type of temperature-robust diamond magnetometry based on the double-transition method. By utilizing both transitions between $|m_{\rm{s}}=0\rangle$ and $|m_{\rm{s}}=\pm1\rangle$ sublevels with incomplete degeneracy of the $|m_{\rm{s}}=\pm1\rangle$states, the impacts of D variations induced by temperature drift can be counteracted. The drift of magnetic field measurement result has been reduced by approximately 7-fold. With further improvements, the temperature-robust diamond magnetometry has the potential to be applied in biomagnetism and space science research.
    Using the double-transition method to resist the impact of temperature drift.
    As a promising solid-state sensor at room temperature, diamond magnetometers based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers have been developed tremendously in recent years. Many studies have demonstrated its potential for achieving high spatial resolution and sensitivity. However, the temperature dependence of the zero-field splitting D of NV centers poses an enormous challenge for the application of diamond magnetometry, since it is difficult to avoid temperature drift in most application scenarios. Here, we demonstrate a type of temperature-robust diamond magnetometry based on the double-transition method. By utilizing both transitions between $|m_{\rm{s}}=0\rangle$ and $|m_{\rm{s}}=\pm1\rangle$ sublevels with incomplete degeneracy of the $|m_{\rm{s}}=\pm1\rangle$states, the impacts of D variations induced by temperature drift can be counteracted. The drift of magnetic field measurement result has been reduced by approximately 7-fold. With further improvements, the temperature-robust diamond magnetometry has the potential to be applied in biomagnetism and space science research.
    • A type of temperature-robust diamond magnetometry based on the double-transition method has been demonstrated, which utilizes both of the transitions between the |ms = 0〉and |ms = ±1〉sublevels of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) electronic ground state with incomplete degeneracy of the |ms = ±1〉states.
    • With the use of the double-transition method, the variations of fluorescence resulting from the zero-field splitting drifts can be counteracted, and the magnetometry signal drift induced by the temperature drift can be eliminated to the fourth order term in the Taylor expansion, which is safe to be neglected on most occasions.
    • The experimental results demonstrate that the magnetometry signal drift in our method has no obvious dependence on the zero-field splitting drift and the drift of magnetic field measurement result have been reduced by about 7-folds, compared with that of the conventional diamond magnetometry only utilizing the transition between |ms = 0〉and |ms = +1〉or |ms = −1〉sublevel.

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  • [1]
    Kennedy T A, Charnock F T, Colton J S, et al. Single-qubit operations with the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Physica Status Solidi (b), 2002, 233 (3): 416–426. doi: 10.1002/1521-3951(200210)233:3<416::AID-PSSB416>3.0.CO;2-R
    [2]
    Block M, Kobrin B, Jarmola A, et al. Optically enhanced electric field sensing using nitrogen-vacancy ensembles. Physical Review Applied, 2021, 16 (2): 024024. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.16.024024
    [3]
    Taylor J M, Cappellaro P, Childress L, et al. High-sensitivity diamond magnetometer with nanoscale resolution. Nature Physics, 2008, 4 (10): 810–816. doi: 10.1038/nphys1075
    [4]
    Schloss J M, Barry J F, Turner M J, et al. Simultaneous broadband vector magnetometry using solid-state spins. Physical Review Applied, 2018, 10 (3): 034044. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.034044
    [5]
    Fescenko I, Jarmola A, Savukov I, et al. Diamond magnetometer enhanced by ferrite flux concentrators. Physical Review Research, 2020, 2 (2): 023394. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.023394
    [6]
    Xie Y, Yu H, Zhu Y, et al. A hybrid magnetometer towards femtotesla sensitivity under ambient conditions. Science Bulletin, 2021, 66 (2): 127–132. doi: 10.1016/j.scib.2020.08.001
    [7]
    Barry J F, Turner M J, Schloss J M, et al. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016, 113 (49): 14133–14138. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1601513113
    [8]
    Glenn D R, Fu R R, Kehayias P, et al. Micrometer-scale magnetic imaging of geological samples using a quantum diamond microscope. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2017, 18 (8): 3254–3267. doi: 10.1002/2017GC006946
    [9]
    Acosta V M, Bauch E, Ledbetter M P, et al. Temperature dependence of the nitrogen-vacancy magnetic resonance in diamond. Physical Review Letters, 2010, 104 (7): 070801. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.070801
    [10]
    Chen X D, Dong C H, Sun F W, et al. Temperature dependent energy level shifts of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Applied Physics Letters, 2011, 99 (16): 161903. doi: 10.1063/1.3652910
    [11]
    Webb J L, Troise L, Hansen N W, et al. Optimization of a diamond nitrogen vacancy centre magnetometer for sensing of biological signals. Frontiers in Physics, 2020, 8: 522536. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2020.522536
    [12]
    Clevenson H, Pham L M, Teale C, et al. Robust high-dynamic-range vector magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Applied Physics Letters, 2018, 112 (25): 252406. doi: 10.1063/1.5034216
    [13]
    Bennett J S, Vyhnalek B E, Greenall H, et al. Precision magnetometers for aerospace applications: A review. Sensors, 2021, 21 (16): 5568. doi: 10.3390/s21165568
    [14]
    Toyli D M, Christle D J, Alkauskas A, et al. Measurement and control of single nitrogen-vacancy center spins above 600 K. Physical Review X, 2012, 2 (3): 031001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevX.2.031001
    [15]
    Doherty M W, Manson N B, Delaney P, et al. The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond. Physics Reports, 2013, 528 (1): 1–45. doi: 10.1016/j.physrep.2013.02.001
    [16]
    Doherty M W, Struzhkin V V, Simpson D A, et al. Electronic properties and metrology applications of the diamond NV-center under pressure. Physical Review Letters, 2014, 112 (4): 047601. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.047601
    [17]
    Barry J F, Schloss J M, Bauch E, et al. Sensitivity optimization for NV-diamond magnetometry. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2020, 92 (1): 015004. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.92.015004
    [18]
    Clevenson H, Trusheim M E, Teale C, et al. Broadband magnetometry and temperature sensing with a light-trapping diamond waveguide. Nature Physics, 2015, 11 (5): 393–397. doi: 10.1038/nphys3291
    [19]
    Bayat K, Choy J, Farrokh Baroughi M, et al. Efficient, uniform, and large area microwave magnetic coupling to NV centers in diamond using double split-ring resonators. Nano Letters, 2014, 14 (3): 1208–1213. doi: 10.1021/nl404072s
    [20]
    Jensen K, Acosta V M, Jarmola A, et al. Light narrowing of magnetic resonances in ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Physical Review B, 2013, 87 (1): 014115. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.014115
    [21]
    Plakhotnik T, Gruber D. Luminescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds at temperatures between 300 and 700 K: perspectives on nanothermometry. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2010, 12 (33): 9751–9756. doi: 10.1039/c001132k
    [22]
    Blakley S M, Fedotov A B, Becker J, et al. Stimulated fluorescence quenching in nitrogen-vacancy centers of diamond: Temperature effects. Optics Letters, 2016, 41 (9): 2077–2080. doi: 10.1364/OL.41.002077
    [23]
    Ness N F. Magnetometers for space research. Space Science Reviews, 1970, 11 (4): 459–554. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00183028
    [24]
    Acuna M H. Space-based magnetometers. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2002, 73 (11): 3717–3736. doi: 10.1063/1.1510570
    [25]
    Jiao M, Guo M, Rong X, et al. Experimental constraint on an exotic parity-odd spin- and velocity-dependent interaction with a single electron spin quantum sensor. Physical Review Letters, 2021, 127 (1): 010501. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.010501
    [26]
    Zheng H, Xu J, Iwata G Z, et al. Zero-field magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond. Physical Review Applied, 2019, 11: 064068. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064068
    [27]
    Kim J H, An H W, Yun T Y. A low-noise WLAN mixer using switched biasing technique. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2009, 19 (10): 650–652. doi: 10.1109/LMWC.2009.2029746
    [28]
    Lee J S, Jeong C J, Jang Y S, et al. A high linear low flicker noise 25% duty cycle LO I/Q mixer for a FM radio receiver. In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium of Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Rio, Brazil: IEEE, 2011: 1399–1402.
    [29]
    Yu H, Xie Y, Zhu Y, et al. Enhanced sensitivity of the nitrogen-vacancy ensemble magnetometer via surface coating. Applied Physics Letters, 2020, 117 (20): 204002. doi: 10.1063/5.0022047
    [30]
    Teraji T, Taniguchi T, Koizumi S, et al. Effective use of source gas for diamond growth with isotopic enrichment. Applied Physics Express, 2013, 6 (5): 055601. doi: 10.7567/APEX.6.055601
  • Supporting information for JUSTC-2022-0150.pdf
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Catalog

    Figure  1.  The level structure of NV center in diamond and the setup of temperature-robust diamond magnetometry based on the double-transition method. (a) Energy-level diagram for the NV center. The external magnetic field $ B_z $ applied along the NV symmetry axis lifts the degeneracy of $|m_{\rm{s}}=\pm1\rangle$ sublevels with a Zeeman shift. (b) The schematic of experimental setup. The green and red arrows represent for the 532 nm laser and fluorescence. A few of components used in the experimental setup like the coil for applying bias magnetic field are not shown in the figure.

    Figure  2.  The simulation results of magnetometry signal drifts $ \delta S $ as the function of zero-field splitting variation $ \delta D $ for the single-transition and double-transition magnetometry. For the double-transition magnetometry, the normalized $ \delta S $ is immune to $ \delta D $.

    Figure  3.  The measured magnetometry signal drifts $ \delta S $ as the function of zero-field splitting variation $ \delta D $ for the single-transition and double-transition magnetometry. Each data point was acquired for 5 s and averaged. The error bars are smaller than the data points.

    Figure  4.  Comparison between the single-transition and double-transition magnetometry working under significant temperature drifts. (a) and (b) Time domain temperature drifts $ \delta T $ and magnetic field measurement result drifts $ \delta B_{\rm mea} $ of the two types of magnetometry.

    [1]
    Kennedy T A, Charnock F T, Colton J S, et al. Single-qubit operations with the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Physica Status Solidi (b), 2002, 233 (3): 416–426. doi: 10.1002/1521-3951(200210)233:3<416::AID-PSSB416>3.0.CO;2-R
    [2]
    Block M, Kobrin B, Jarmola A, et al. Optically enhanced electric field sensing using nitrogen-vacancy ensembles. Physical Review Applied, 2021, 16 (2): 024024. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.16.024024
    [3]
    Taylor J M, Cappellaro P, Childress L, et al. High-sensitivity diamond magnetometer with nanoscale resolution. Nature Physics, 2008, 4 (10): 810–816. doi: 10.1038/nphys1075
    [4]
    Schloss J M, Barry J F, Turner M J, et al. Simultaneous broadband vector magnetometry using solid-state spins. Physical Review Applied, 2018, 10 (3): 034044. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.034044
    [5]
    Fescenko I, Jarmola A, Savukov I, et al. Diamond magnetometer enhanced by ferrite flux concentrators. Physical Review Research, 2020, 2 (2): 023394. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.023394
    [6]
    Xie Y, Yu H, Zhu Y, et al. A hybrid magnetometer towards femtotesla sensitivity under ambient conditions. Science Bulletin, 2021, 66 (2): 127–132. doi: 10.1016/j.scib.2020.08.001
    [7]
    Barry J F, Turner M J, Schloss J M, et al. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016, 113 (49): 14133–14138. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1601513113
    [8]
    Glenn D R, Fu R R, Kehayias P, et al. Micrometer-scale magnetic imaging of geological samples using a quantum diamond microscope. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2017, 18 (8): 3254–3267. doi: 10.1002/2017GC006946
    [9]
    Acosta V M, Bauch E, Ledbetter M P, et al. Temperature dependence of the nitrogen-vacancy magnetic resonance in diamond. Physical Review Letters, 2010, 104 (7): 070801. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.070801
    [10]
    Chen X D, Dong C H, Sun F W, et al. Temperature dependent energy level shifts of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Applied Physics Letters, 2011, 99 (16): 161903. doi: 10.1063/1.3652910
    [11]
    Webb J L, Troise L, Hansen N W, et al. Optimization of a diamond nitrogen vacancy centre magnetometer for sensing of biological signals. Frontiers in Physics, 2020, 8: 522536. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2020.522536
    [12]
    Clevenson H, Pham L M, Teale C, et al. Robust high-dynamic-range vector magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Applied Physics Letters, 2018, 112 (25): 252406. doi: 10.1063/1.5034216
    [13]
    Bennett J S, Vyhnalek B E, Greenall H, et al. Precision magnetometers for aerospace applications: A review. Sensors, 2021, 21 (16): 5568. doi: 10.3390/s21165568
    [14]
    Toyli D M, Christle D J, Alkauskas A, et al. Measurement and control of single nitrogen-vacancy center spins above 600 K. Physical Review X, 2012, 2 (3): 031001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevX.2.031001
    [15]
    Doherty M W, Manson N B, Delaney P, et al. The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond. Physics Reports, 2013, 528 (1): 1–45. doi: 10.1016/j.physrep.2013.02.001
    [16]
    Doherty M W, Struzhkin V V, Simpson D A, et al. Electronic properties and metrology applications of the diamond NV-center under pressure. Physical Review Letters, 2014, 112 (4): 047601. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.047601
    [17]
    Barry J F, Schloss J M, Bauch E, et al. Sensitivity optimization for NV-diamond magnetometry. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2020, 92 (1): 015004. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.92.015004
    [18]
    Clevenson H, Trusheim M E, Teale C, et al. Broadband magnetometry and temperature sensing with a light-trapping diamond waveguide. Nature Physics, 2015, 11 (5): 393–397. doi: 10.1038/nphys3291
    [19]
    Bayat K, Choy J, Farrokh Baroughi M, et al. Efficient, uniform, and large area microwave magnetic coupling to NV centers in diamond using double split-ring resonators. Nano Letters, 2014, 14 (3): 1208–1213. doi: 10.1021/nl404072s
    [20]
    Jensen K, Acosta V M, Jarmola A, et al. Light narrowing of magnetic resonances in ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Physical Review B, 2013, 87 (1): 014115. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.014115
    [21]
    Plakhotnik T, Gruber D. Luminescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds at temperatures between 300 and 700 K: perspectives on nanothermometry. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2010, 12 (33): 9751–9756. doi: 10.1039/c001132k
    [22]
    Blakley S M, Fedotov A B, Becker J, et al. Stimulated fluorescence quenching in nitrogen-vacancy centers of diamond: Temperature effects. Optics Letters, 2016, 41 (9): 2077–2080. doi: 10.1364/OL.41.002077
    [23]
    Ness N F. Magnetometers for space research. Space Science Reviews, 1970, 11 (4): 459–554. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00183028
    [24]
    Acuna M H. Space-based magnetometers. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2002, 73 (11): 3717–3736. doi: 10.1063/1.1510570
    [25]
    Jiao M, Guo M, Rong X, et al. Experimental constraint on an exotic parity-odd spin- and velocity-dependent interaction with a single electron spin quantum sensor. Physical Review Letters, 2021, 127 (1): 010501. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.010501
    [26]
    Zheng H, Xu J, Iwata G Z, et al. Zero-field magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond. Physical Review Applied, 2019, 11: 064068. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064068
    [27]
    Kim J H, An H W, Yun T Y. A low-noise WLAN mixer using switched biasing technique. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 2009, 19 (10): 650–652. doi: 10.1109/LMWC.2009.2029746
    [28]
    Lee J S, Jeong C J, Jang Y S, et al. A high linear low flicker noise 25% duty cycle LO I/Q mixer for a FM radio receiver. In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium of Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Rio, Brazil: IEEE, 2011: 1399–1402.
    [29]
    Yu H, Xie Y, Zhu Y, et al. Enhanced sensitivity of the nitrogen-vacancy ensemble magnetometer via surface coating. Applied Physics Letters, 2020, 117 (20): 204002. doi: 10.1063/5.0022047
    [30]
    Teraji T, Taniguchi T, Koizumi S, et al. Effective use of source gas for diamond growth with isotopic enrichment. Applied Physics Express, 2013, 6 (5): 055601. doi: 10.7567/APEX.6.055601

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